From ArticleWorld

Romania is a European country located in the South-Eastern part of the continent. It borders Moldova, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia and Montenegro, Bulgaria and the Black Sea. Since 2004 Romania has been a member of NATO and is currently covering 238,391 square kilometers. The official currency is the Leu (RON).


The appearance of Romanians is linked with the Roman Empire. Emperor Trajan conquered the region (until then inhabited by Getae) due to two campaigns in 101 and 106. The area became a Roman province called Dacia. In 271 the region became to be known as the Kingdom of the Goths and was later included in the Hunnic Empire at the end of the fourth century. Time passed and the Medieval Ages saw the region organized in three counties: Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia. Although the year 1475 saw an important victory by Moldavia Emperor Stephen the Great against the Ottoman Empire, the regions of Wallachia and Moldavia were later conquered by the same attackers. In the years to come the two areas lost several subdivisions:

  • The Eastern part of Bessarabia (a division of Moldavia) was lost to the Russian Empire
  • The Northern part of Bukovina to the Austrian Empire
  • Budjak to the Ottoman Empire.

Transylvania was conquered in the 11th century by the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1541 it became a principality under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. The 18th century saw Transylvania being included in the Austrian Empire. A joint ruling of both Hungary and Austria saw the Romanian inhabitants suffering a process of Magyarization. The unification of the three counties was done in several steps. First, in 1859, Emperor Alexander John Cuza managed to unite Moldavia and Walachia. After involvement in the Russo-Turkish War, Romania was recognized as an independent state with the name of Kingdom of Romania. It also acquired Dobruja but lost two Southern districts of Bessarabia. After World War I Romania gained Bukovina, Bessarabia and Transylvania. The counties united in 1918. This is the historic year when the country gained its independence. World War II saw Romania losing some regions because of the alliance with the Nazi Germany. It remained under the ruling of the Soviet Union and was turned into a Communist country. The dictatorship ended on the 22nd of December, 1989. A revolution occurred and the ruler of the time, Ceausescu, was dethroned and later executed for crimes against the country and its population. 1990 saw the first elections and democracy became a reality. Nowadays Romania is a democratic country.


Romania is currently a democratic republic, with a legislative branch formed by two chambers: Senatul and Camera Deputatilor. The members of the chambers are elected every four years. The president is elected every five years and he appoints the Prime Minister that in turns appoints the members of the Government. Judicial power stands in the hands of The High Court of Justice and Cassation.