From ArticleWorld

A factory is a professionally managed industrial establishment comprising of workers who gather for the mass production of industrial or commercial goods. Depending on the product being manufactured, a factory may contain several sections in order to carry out work in an organized manner before the finished goods can be made ready for delivery.

Factories are places where resources are gathered to achieve a decided target. These resources are not just in the form of workers, but also capital and necessary infrastructure.

Location of factories and their need in industry

A number of factors decide the location of a factory. Primary among them are the cost of land available, proximity to sources of raw material, accessibility by appropriate forms of transport and proximity to the market where the finished products are targeted for. The convenience of workers is also taken into account.

In many situations, land available in rural areas is far less expensive than land in urban areas. Hence, to reduce initial investment, factories are installed away from cities. Supply of raw material is another crucial factor in ensuring cost cutting and timely delivery. Roads, railway services, and if possible air services, are also taken into account. Since delivery costs make a significant difference in the price per product manufactured, the proximity of the market targeted is also considered. After weighing all the pros and cons, a site is decided for establishing a factory.

Since factories are highly organized establishments, they are a necessary asset for society. Goods required for everyday consumption, vehicles for conveyance, among countless other things are possible because of factories.

Factories – a brief history

The Romans manufactured glassware and bronze ware for export as well as local use. In the middle ages, silk and textile factories were very common. Development of new trade routes led to increased demands of manufactured goods. Paper, iron, glass, clothing items and soap were the most common goods manufactured.

Generally, manual labour was used in factories although water power was deployed in certain places. The concept of modern mechanization and automated plants came to being in the early 20th century. This was especially popularized by industrialist Henry Ford. He made an immense contribution to the system of factories in the United States and elsewhere, when he introduced assembly line techniques in his motor plant. The 20th century saw the introduction of modern techniques, stiff competition and widespread safety awareness in the factory system