From ArticleWorld

Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of living things. It studies the structure and function of the biomolecules in living organisms. It concentrates on the chemical processes that take place in organisms. Cell metabolism and the endocrine system have both been explained in detail by biochemistry. Biochemistry started with discovery of the first enzyme and today biochemist focus mainly on the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living organisms and the properties of proteins. Other areas of interest include the genetic code and cell membrane transport.


The general thought was that the molecules of life could only be produced by other living things. However with the synthesis of urea this view was dispelled. The discovery of the first enzyme however may have been the actual start of biochemistry. Biochemistry has come a long way from the discovery of the first enzyme with new technologies such as chromatography and X-ray diffraction allowing for the determination of biomolecules and the metabolic pathways of cells. Biochemistry now has wide applications in many fields including but not limited to medicine and agriculture.

Major biomolecules

The major biomolecules focused on by biochemistry are carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates in the body are needed for energy and for the storage of energy. Biochemistry has detailed the process of glycolysis which involves the metabolism of carbohydrates. Proteins have also been a focus of biochemistry as enzymes which are proteins play a large role in the chemical processes taking place in the body. Also of importance are lipids which make up cell membranes and nucleic acids that contain genetic material and form DNA and RNA.

Biochemistry and other related sciences

Biochemistry is most closely related to molecular biology, chemical biology and genetics. It has often been combined with ideas from these disciplines however remained distinctly separate. Today the terms biochemistry and molecular biology have become interchangeable.