From ArticleWorld

Perfume manufacturing is difficult to understand because formulas are kept secret. However, faint classifications can be made under the following:

  • Olfactive families: Fragrances are varied and some are classified by themes or accords. Widely used families are floral, chypre, aldehydic, fougère, leather, woody, orientals or ambers.
  • Fragrance notes: In aromatics, a combination of water and alcohol is made to determine the perfume’s odor strength and its vaporizing capacity.
  • Concentration and Composition: - All perfume oils contain high concentrations of components that may trigger allergic reactions or cause injury should they come into direct contact with the skin. So a solvent is mixed with the oil to dilute its concentration. These solvents may be jojoba, coconut oil, or wax, but most commonly used is ethanol or ethanol mixed with water.


Natural and synthetic aromatics

Plants give a variety essential oils and aroma compounds that can be used for perfumes. The main reasons plants have such aromas are for protection, infection and pollination. Living things have been the greatest source for aromas. Apart from plants, there are several animals that are sources of highly valued aromas. For instance, the musk of a musk deer, the civet musk of Viverridae, castoreum of an American beaver, Ambergris of a sperm whale and honeycomb of honeybee.

Synthetic aromas are manufactured due to the scarcity of natural resources. They are chiefly chemical compounds made from petroleum distillates, pine resin or cheap organic feedstock. Some of them, like calone, linalool, and coumarin are often used in contemporary perfumes.

Obtaining natural odorants

Extraction of natural odorants involves several processes.

Obtaining odorants from a natural resource involves various processes. It has to begin with maceration / solvent extraction, then distillation. Oil is collected through expression, and sometimes enfleurage is done when distillation is not possible.

However, synthetic odorants are obtained from chemical compounds through organic synthesis and purification processes.

Fragrances are commonly known as 'essential oils' which are available from natural resources.

Importance of 'nose'

Perfume is of exceptional importance in the areas of luxury goods, household chemicals and the food industry. A good smell is bound to bring aesthetic pleasure and attract consumers who buy perfumes or perfumery products.

The 'nose' is a body of experts that gives the ok to sell a perfume or not. These professionals are trained people who are highly knowledgble and experiencd regarding all kinds of aromas and who can distinguish every fragrance by their smell. They are also involved in the composition of various synthetic aromas and are often hired by major companies.


The production of perfume began during the early Egyptian civilizations and later on was adopted by the Romans and the Arabs. Countries like Arabia and Persia exported perfumes along with spices and herbs. From the 18th century to date, France remains the center for all good perfumes. However, a few perfumes were used to kill by means of slow poisoning.


Store perfume away from heat and light, and make sure it is tightly closed. Packaging is extremely important with regards to storing perfume, for it usually loses its features when it comes into contact with heat, light, oxygen or extraneous organic materials.