From ArticleWorld

Glucose is a monosaccharide and is considered one of the most important carbohydrates. It is one of the main products of photosynthesis in organisms and it begins cellular respiration. The natural form of glucose, also known as dextrose, is especially used in the food industry. Every major dietary carbohydrate has glucose in it, whether in the form of a building bloc or with another monosaccharide.

Natural production

Glucose is a product in the photosynthesis of plants and in some prokaryotes. In both animals and funguses, it is created when glycogen breaks down. This process is referred to as glycogenolysis. In plants, the result of this breakdown is starch. In animals, it is synthesized in both the liver and the kidneys, from non-carbohydrate processes, such as pyruvate and glycerol. This process is known as gluconeogenesis.

Commercial production

Glucose can be produced commercially through the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. A variety of crops, such as maize, rice, wheat, cassava, sago, potato and arrowroot, can be used as a starch source worldwide. The United States almost exclusively uses cornstarch (created from maize).

Glucose function

Glucose is perhaps the most widely used monosaccharide, perhaps as a result of its wide availability. In addition, it doesn't react with amino proteins, which would destroy the function of many enzymes. It is used as an energy source to fuel the body (at a rate of 4 calories of food energy per gram). It is also important in the production of protein and in the metabolism of lipids. Some glucose goes directly to fuel brain cells while other glucose goes to the liver and muscles where it will be stored as glycogen as well as to fat cells where it will be stored as fat.