Cervical cancer

From ArticleWorld


Cancer of the cervix, a malignant tumor in the cervix, is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smears are the most important way to fight cervical cancer. Women with human papillomavirus infection usually also develop cervical cancer.

Symptoms

Early cervical cancer may have no symptoms. Vaginal bleeding, along with contact bleeding may be early symptoms of this cancer. There may even be a vaginal mass. If the cancer has spread, it may also be in the abdomen or other organs. Risks for cervical cancer include HPV infection, smoking, HIV infection chlamidiya, dietary aspects, oral contraceptives, many pregnancies, and family history of cervical cancer, among other risk factors. Having regular pap smears is the most effective way to catch premalignant cervical cancer.

Diagnosis and treatment

The cervix can be further examined for cancer by cloposcopy, which is a magnified visual examination of the cervix. Since 99% of cervical cancers have human papillomavirus, a test should be performed for this disease, also, though some doctors believe that testing for HPV causes unneccesary alarm to patients.

Some cancers are treated by hysterectomy, which includes removal of the entire uterus and some of the vagina. In the second stage of the cancer, hysterectomy plus removing the lymphnodes and radiation therapy treat the cancer. For large stage tumors, chemotherapy, radiation, then surgery may be indicated. Advanced cervical cancers are treated with radiation and chemotherapy.